Forex Trading Strategies #7 – Positive And Negative Prospect

This is the final article on Forex Trading Strategies.  Click here for Forex Trading Strategies #6 – Investing Versus Trading

Forex Trading Strategies – Positive And Negative Prospect

Trading is a lot like going into battle, and according to Sun Tzu in the Art of War:


It is said that if you know your enemies and know yourself, you will not be imperiled in a hundred battles; if you do not know your enemies but do know yourself, you will win one and lose one; if you do not know your enemies nor yourself, you will be imperiled in every single battle.  – Wikiquotes

Almost every Forex trading strategies out there focuses on one side of the trade, whether it be the understanding of charts, markets, fundamentals, or as Sun Tzu would put it, the understanding of your enemies, and that would result in win one and lose one.  If that’s what you’ve been experiencing in your Forex trading career, then you need to pay close attention to the following.

Without getting into the details of understanding the human psyche and the reasons behind why we do the things we do or the choices we make, it is important to understand the simple fact that we are often influenced by how we look at things, and the saying “glass half full / glass half empty” is without doubt, a simple yet amazing revelation of what this article is all about.  Let me explain:

Consider the following problems posed by the study done in 1981 by Tversky and Kahneman (Prospect Theory):

Problem – U.S. is preparing for the outbreak of an unusual Asian disease, which is expected to kill 600 people. Two alternative programs to combat the disease have been proposed. Assume that the exact scientific estimate of the consequences of the programs are as follows:

  1. If Program A is adopted, 200 people will be saved.
  2. If Program B is adopted, there is 33.3% of probability that all 600 people will be saved, but 66.6% of probability that no people will be saved.

Which of the two programs would you favor?

If you are like 72% of people, you would choose Program A, because you are thinking of “risk averse”, as you would rather have a third of survivors than not at all.

However, here’s the same problem but with two different choices essentially offering the same solutions (remember, this test was done with two different groups of people, one group has access to only one problem):

Problem – Same as above, U.S. Preparing to deal with disease outbreak with 600 proposed fatalities.

  1. If Program C is adopted, 400 people will die.
  2. If Program D is adopted, there is 1/3 of probability that nobody will die, and 2/3 probability that 600 people will die.

If you choose Program D, then you are like 78% of people who are thinking of “risk appetite” as Program C and D are essentially identical to Program A and B respectively.

In case you are wondering, there is a slight discrepancy between the 72% of people who chose Program A and the 78% of people who chose Program D, which almost implies that there are more risk takers when the context is negative, as it is harder to make the decision and condemn 400 people to death than clinging to hope that perhaps ALL will be saved.

When we put into the terms of trading, it seems clear why traders tend to close profits early (risk averse), while letting losing trades run (risk appetite); this is because the pain of losing outweighs the joy of gaining.

This framing effect, as described in Kahneman and Tversky’s (1979) Prospect theory, occurs because individuals over-weight losses when they are described as definitive, as opposed to situations where they are described as possible. This is done even though a rational economical evaluation of the two situations lead to identical expected value. People tend to fear losses more than they value gains. A $1 loss is more painful than the pleasure of a $1 gain. Describing a loss as certain, and therefore more painful, will inflict investors trying to avoid such a loss. As a consequence, they will take a greater risk and gamble in a losing situation, holding on to the position in hope that prices will recover. In a winning situation the circumstances are reversed. Investors will become risk averse and quickly take profits, not letting profits run.

In-line with the above understanding, here are insights to help you trade.  Remember, we are creatures of habits, the more you practice, the better you are.  The more you are exposed to this kind of critical thinking, the better you’ll be at making right decisions:

Insight #1 – Evaluate the context of your trading decisions and be aware of the other side of the argument.

When you decide to close a trade, is it to protect your profits (risk averse)? Or is it the right decision considering the full potential of the trade?

When you decide to stay in a trade, is it because you’re desperately trying to avoid the pain of taking losses?  Or is it the right decision as the market dictates?

Insight #2 – Do not over-leverage

You probably have heard this advice a thousand times from your fellow traders, that over-leveraging is the biggest mistake you can make.  Why? Because over-leveraging makes the pain of taking losses even more intense, cornering you into making the wrong decision every time.  What’s worse is that when you should have taken a loss but stayed in the trade, not based on the market, but just because you didn’t want to face the pain, and the trade ended up positive as the market reversed…  This reinforces the wrong behavior by awarding you doing the wrong thing, eventually delaying your success.  Therefore, don’t over-leverage.

Insight #3 – Treat each trade as a new trade

Tversky and Kahneman further posed the following problems, and when applied to Forex trading, shows the importance of treating each trade as a new trade, because traders tend to become biased from recent trading experiences, thus likely to miss opportunities or make mistakes:

Problem – Imagine that you have decided to see a play and paid the admission price of $10 per ticket. As you enter the theater you discover that you have lost the ticket. The seat was not marked and the ticket cannot be recovered.  Would you pay $10 for another ticket?

  1. Yes
  2. No

If your answer is No, then you are among the 54% of people who felt that the cost of $20 is too much for the play. Now comes the twist:

Problem – Imagine that you have decided to see a play and as you enter the theater, you discovered that you lost a $10 bill. Would you still pay $10 for a ticket?

  1. Yes
  2. No

If your answer is Yes, then you are among the staggering 88% of the majority, who chose to pay for the ticket.  This obviously demonstrate the fact that when we don’t see a new trade as new, to some extend our decision making will be affected.  To take a step further, let’s say you are following a proven strategy but so far you have taken 3 losses in a row.  It will be increasingly hard to resist the urge of abandoning the strategy, but if the strategy is a proven one, then you should stick to it.  The same thing also applies to trading the same pairs, and that whatever happened on the previous trades should have no impact on the current trade.  You should just focus on the strategy.

In conclusion, I believe by understanding your own vulnerability, you’ll become a better trader, and at the risk of sounding like a broken record, we are creatures of habits., and the more we do it, the easier it is.   Success is also a habit, and if you are in the habit of success, nothing can stop you.



About Henry Liu

My name is Henry Liu and I am a Forex Trader and Mentor. I help traders achieve consistent income trading Forex while spending less time trading. My focus in trading is a combination of Fundamental Analysis, Technical Analysis, and Market Sentiment. Far too many retail Forex traders concentrate on just one aspect of trading, technical analysis, and ignore everything else; it is my goal (and vision) to educate every trader on how to take advantage of news trading and become more balanced traders.

You can find more information about me on my Google Profile.


  1. Thanks again.

    In summary i would say the article exposes the deficiencies of a man in regards to Psychology of Trading Forex with emotions. Emotion is an integral part of a man, which most times is difficult to separate from the decisions we take (whether good or bad).

    I think this is the reason why Expert Advisors are good at this.

  2. Good advice – worth reading again. The examples have been helpful in understanding what governs our actions when we decide to grab profits early or let losers run. Thanks Henry.

  3. Hi Henry,thank you for the strategies 7,it really help to open my mind about the forex trading. thank you once again for your unselfish sharing and hard work for us. God bless you.

  4. M. Jackson says

    Right on all points Henry. This article and the last (#6) on investing are so valuable. Looking inward and being honest with myself about how and why I trade along with these articles has been instrumental in developing my trading skill set. Thank you for your time and never ending gifts to the traders that are open minded enough to receive them. – thank you!

  5. Thanks for all these forex trading strategies,it has really being helpful to my trading

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